GNOME developer Matthias Clasen has announced that, with the upcoming demise of “fallback mode,” the project will support a set of official GNOME Shell extensions to provide a more “classic” experience.
No matter what your purpose is, when it comes to taking screenshots, Shutter is the only option. It is incredibly feature-rich and very fast – unless you enable the timer mode, of course. You can capture certain areas, individual windows, the entire desktop or even menus and tooltips.
Shutter isn’t limited to just capture either, once the shot is taken, it can be transferred directly into the editor where you can add shapes or text, censor private information or crop some more if you got it wrong the first time. From there, you can even upload directly to a number of image hosts without leaving Shutter.
PS Use apt-get to install
Do you ever get tired of having to set the numloc key in Debian Squeeze after starting your machine or after a reboot?
Well here is a quick fix for that.
It’s called numlocx. Now there are two parts, one for the console (terminal) and one for the desktop (DE).
First bring your machine up to date by issuing the command:
Once that is done now you can download console-ttols by:
apt-get install -y console-tools
Now you can edit the file:
nano -w /etc/console-tools/config
now you need to look for:
Uncomment this line so that it looks like this:
control x,y to save
And then you can reboot your machine. Watch the numloc key and see what it does!
Even if you turn numloc off on the keyboard, this will set it on at command boot.
Now for the second part which is for desktop(DE). Issue the following command:
apt-get install -y numlocx
Now turn on numlocx:
Ea DE user has to turn numlocx on.
Hope this helps and happy computing!
Make grub boot faster.
WARNING Always make backups!
YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED
From a console type:
nano -w /etc/default/grub
Use the control w function to “find”:
change to 1. Now Control X, Y to save.
Now you can reboot and see what it does!
Here is a quick way to install a Debian base install with no desktop. You must have the full Cd set or at least the first CD of the set. CD or DVD will work.
no network connection
set IP address for static IP
set the subnet, and gateway
set the DNS
run through prompts
No NTP No mirrors NO NOTHING
tasksel base only and SSH
See how many packages it installs
On Lenny it was about 75
This will make it install faster. You can go back and install from there.
The stat command is really useful to gather information from file, directory and file system.
The basic usage of stat is:
~# stat /etc/passwd
Size: 1504 Blocks: 8 IO Block: 4096 regular file
Device: 301h/769d Inode: 1828781 Links: 1
Access: (0644/-rw-r–r–) Uid: ( 0/ root) Gid: ( 0/ root)
Access: 2011-11-04 13:34:43.000000000 -0400
Modify: 2011-09-14 02:26:33.000000000 -0400
Change: 2011-09-14 02:26:33.000000000 -0400
So, without options you can have the following information
File : Size in Bytes
Blocks : Number of blocks used
IO Block : Size in bytes of every block.
Device : The identifier number of your storage device (harddrive, etc.)
Inode : The inode number that the file or directory is linked to.
Access/Modify and change Times : Note that the timestamps also include which time zone that accesses or modifications took place in. in this example -0400
The following are some of the flags and arguments that can be used for the stat command:
-f, –filesystem display filesystem status instead of file status
-c –format=FORMAT use the specified FORMAT instead of the default
-L, –dereference follow links
-Z, –context print the security context
File system status
stat -f /
ID: 64d0ef29968c53b0 Namelen: 255 Type: ext2/ext3
Block size: 4096 Fundamental block size: 4096
Blocks: Total: 4012826 Free: 3440842 Available: 3275692
Inodes: Total: 3701376 Free: 3668155
As you can see the output is a bit different with the -f flag you get information on the Type of FS and on the status of the blocks and of inodes (total/free). The -f can be used also with a file in that case the information will be the one of the FS that contains it (i.g. stat -f /etc/passwd
With the -c options you can control which information display in the output of the command stat.
For example to print the permissions of all files in letters and octal you can use:
stat -c '%A %a %n' *
The result would look this:
-rw-r–r– 644 adduser.conf
-rw-r–r– 644 adjtime
-rw-r–r– 644 aliases
drwxr-xr-x 755 alternatives
drwxr-xr-x 755 apache2
drwxr-xr-x 755 apt
-rw-r—– 640 at.deny
-rw-r–r– 644 bash.bashrc
-rw-r–r– 644 bash_completion
drwxr-xr-x 755 bash_completion.d
-rw-r–r– 644 bindresvport.blackli
Take a look at the –help output:
Here’s the result:
Usage: stat [OPTION] FILE…
Display file or file system status.
-L, –dereference follow links
-f, –file-system display file system status instead of file status
-c –format=FORMAT use the specified FORMAT instead of the default;
output a newline after each use of FORMAT
–printf=FORMAT like –format, but interpret backslash escapes,
and do not output a mandatory trailing newline.
If you want a newline, include \n in FORMAT.
-t, –terse print the information in terse form
–help display this help and exit
–version output version information and exit
The valid format sequences for files (without –file-system):
%a Access rights in octal
%A Access rights in human readable form
%b Number of blocks allocated (see %B)
%B The size in bytes of each block reported by %b
%C SELinux security context string
%d Device number in decimal
%D Device number in hex
%f Raw mode in hex
%F File type
%g Group ID of owner
%G Group name of owner
%h Number of hard links
%i Inode number
%n File name
%N Quoted file name with dereference if symbolic link
%o I/O block size
%s Total size, in bytes
%t Major device type in hex
%T Minor device type in hex
%u User ID of owner
%U User name of owner
%x Time of last access
%X Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
%y Time of last modification
%Y Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch
%z Time of last change
%Z Time of last change as seconds since Epoch
Valid format sequences for file systems:
%a Free blocks available to non-superuser
%b Total data blocks in file system
%c Total file nodes in file system
%d Free file nodes in file system
%f Free blocks in file system
%C SELinux security context string
%i File System ID in hex
%l Maximum length of filenames
%n File name
%s Block size (for faster transfers)
%S Fundamental block size (for block counts)
%t Type in hex
%T Type in human readable form
NOTE: your shell may have its own version of stat, which usually supersedes
the version described here. Please refer to your shell’s documentation
for details about the options it supports.
Report bugs to <email@example.com>.
And don’t forget about the man pages!
man stat |less
Well I have been adding to my list of Debian sites. I had started with a list of Linux sites for newbies , but I had to break the Debian stuff out as it was getting long by itself.
If you have a site that you want to add, send a comment and I will see about adding to the list.
Here you go:
Linux Root Definition
root is the user name or account that by default has access to all commands and files on a Linux operating system. It is also referred to as the root account, root user and the superuser.
The word root also has several additional, related meanings when used as part of other terms, and thus it can be a source of confusion to people new to linux systems.
One of these is the root directory, which is the top level directory on a system. That is, it is the directory in which all other directories, including their subdirectories, and files reside. The root directory is designated by a forward slash ( / ).
Another is /root (pronounced slash root), which is the root user’s home directory. A home directory is the main repository of a user’s files, including that user’s configuration files, and it is usually the directory in which a user finds oneself when a user logs into a system. /root is a subdirectory of the root directory, as indicated by the forward slash that begins its name, and should not to be confused with that directory.
Home directories for users other than root are by default created in the /home directory, which is another standard subdirectory of the root directory.
Root privileges are the powers that the root account has on the system. The root account is the most privileged on the system and has absolute power over it (i.e., complete access to all files and commands). Among root’s powers are the ability to modify the system in any way desired and to grant and revoke access permissions (i.e., the ability to read, modify and execute specific files and directories) for other users, including any of those that are by default reserved for root.
A rootkit is a set of software tools secretly installed by an intruder into a computer that allows such intruder to use that computer for its own purposes when desired. Well designed rootkits are able to obtain root access (i.e., access to the root account rather than just to a user account) and to hide most or all traces of their presence and activities.
The use of the term root for the all-powerful administrative user may have arisen from the fact that root is the only account having write permissions (i.e., permission to modify files) in the root directory. The root directory, in turn, takes its name from the fact that the filesystems (i.e., the entire hierarchy of directories that is used to organize files) in Linux operating systems have been designed with a tree-like (although inverted) structure in which all directories branch off from a single directory that is similar to the root of a tree.
Every user account is automatically assigned an identification number, the UID (i.e., user ID) and the system uses these numbers instead of the user names to identify and keep track of the users. Root always has a UID of zero. This can be verified by logging in as root and running the echo command to display the UID of the current user:
echo is used to repeat on the screen what is typed on the command line. The dollar sign preceding UID tells echo to display its value rather than its name.
The UID for root (as well as for all other users) can also be seen by looking at /etc/passwd, which is the configuration file for user data. This file can be viewed (by default by all users) by using the cat command.
cat /etc/passwd | less
The output of cat /etc/passwd in this example is piped (i.e., transferred) to the less command to allow it to be read one screenful at a time, which is useful if the file is a long one. The line of output for root will look something like root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash. The first column shows the user name and the third column shows the UID, which can be seen to be zero.
The permissions system in Linux operating systems is set by default to prevent access by ordinary users to critical parts of the system and to files and directories belonging to other users. Thus, it can be very tempting for users new to such systems, especially those who are accustomed to systems with a weak permissions system or without any permissions system (e.g., M$ or the older versions of the Macintosh), to bypass this permissions system on their personal computers by logging directly into the root account and staying there. Although this provides momentary relief, it should be avoided and ordinary work on the system should be done via an ordinary user account.
This is because it is very easy to damage a Linux system when using it as root, much easier than to damage most other types of operating systems. The designers of most other operating systems devised methods of protecting the system and data to compensate for the lack of a robust permissions system.
However, an important principle of Linux operating systems is the provision of maximum flexibility to configure the system, and thus the root user is fully empowered. Linux systems assume that the system administrator knows exactly what he or she is doing and that only such individual(s) will be using the root account. Thus, there is virtually no safety net for the root user in the event of a careless error, such as damaging or deleting a critical system file which could make the entire system inoperable.
A critical means for preventing users from directly damaging Linux systems is the avoidance of using the root account except when absolutely necessary, even by knowledgeable and experienced system administrators.
rather than routinely logging into the system as root, administrators should log in with their ordinary user accounts and then use commands, such as su, kdesu and sudo, that provide them with root privileges only as needed and without requiring a new login.
For example, to become root with su at the command line:
pressing the Enter key and supplying the root password. The account of the previous user can be returned to by pressing the Ctrl and d keys simultaneously or by typing the word exit and then pressing the Enter key.
The security associated with using su can be increased by using its -c option, which terminates it and causes an immediate return to the former user account after the current command has completed execution or after any program that it has launched has been closed.
Tasks that require root privileges include moving files or directories into or out of system directories (i.e., directories that are critical to the functioning of the operating system), copying files into system directories, granting or revoking user privileges, some system repairs, and the installation of some application programs. By default, it is not necessary to be root to be able to read most configuration files and documentation files in system directories, although it is necessary to be root to modify them.